Hypotheses of Etruscan history have long been divided concerning the population's origins and prospects and their relationship to other ancient and modern populations in the Mediterranean region. Consensus concerning this pre-classical population draws primarily on knowledge from archaeology and genetics to suggest an Anatolian origin, with subsequent migration and long-term settlement in the modern Tuscan region of Italy, and a limited or non-existent persistence in the modern European gene pool after the civilization's disintegration. This project seeks to integrate osteological analysis using a geometric morphometrics approach to discriminate the morphological relationship of Etruscans with other Mediterranean populations. Cranial three-dimensional landmarks of individuals (N=240) representing Etruscans, modern Tuscans, Anatolians, Egyptians, other modern Europeans, and an outgroup Australasian sample are used to quantify and relate the cranial morphology of these groups. Analyses of landmarks in the inferior aspect of the skull—shown to be most informative of population history—result in agreement with the Anatolian origin hypothesis, but are inadequate for assessing biological continuity. Prospectus for understanding population history, admixture dynamics, and morphogenetics of the cranium with geometric morphometrics methods is offered.